The Waves of Feminism

The women’s liberation movement and the second wave of feminism, or what is otherwise referred to as “the largest social movement in the history of the United State” (Baxandall, 705), occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. Now regarded as modern feminism, this movement most often consisted of achieving, self- confident women, often including groups of college-educated young students. Though such patterns hold true, the types … Continue reading The Waves of Feminism

Women’s Fight for Equal Rights

During the 20th century, women in America were still restricted in many aspects of their lives, from the home to the workplace. As the “second wave of feminism” continued to grow in the 1960’s, women became increasingly unsatisfied with their unequal treatment in comparison with men. Thus began what was known as the women’s liberation movement, or modern day feminism. Though there is no defining … Continue reading Women’s Fight for Equal Rights

The Fight Continues

            In a time of needed social stability and conformity in all aspects due to war and political turmoil, women were one of the most targeted groups that needed to be contained. The countries commitment to social and cultural norms called for women to remain domestic in nature, not to pursue educational or career-oriented goals, and remain subordinate to men (Baxandall 707). Even if women … Continue reading The Fight Continues

Their Bodies Were Not Their Own

On Saturday May 12, 1959 Betty Jean Owen’s life changed forever. Her life changed because four white me decided that they were going to “go out and get a nigger girl”(McGuire). The four men armed themselves and found a car with four African American people in it to hold up gun point. The men weren’t lookingfor an business with the men so they let the two … Continue reading Their Bodies Were Not Their Own

“It was like all of us had been raped”

Before 1959 white men were never found guilty or charged for raping African American women. It wasn’t until Betty Jean Owens was brutally attacked against her will and raped multiple times by four white men. These four white men were found guilty and sentenced to life at the end of the Owens trial. Not only was this a random rape act but, these men admitted … Continue reading “It was like all of us had been raped”

“It Was Like All Of Us Had Been Raped”

The 1959 Tallahassee Rape case involved four white men and a black women. On the night of Saturday, May 2nd, four white men decided they were going to have an “all night party” with a black girl of their choosing. (Rape) They armed themselves with weapons and decided to go after a parked car filled with four African Americans. One African American girl, Betty Jean … Continue reading “It Was Like All Of Us Had Been Raped”

‘It Was Like All of Us Had Been Raped’

Trigger warning: Rape   MAY 3, 1959 — A parked car near Jake Gaither Park in Tallahassee, Florida, is approached by four white men at 1 a.m. Inside the car were four African American students who had spent the first half of their night at a Florida A&M University dance, still donning tuxedos and dresses. One individual, Betty Jean Owens, was forcibly abducted by the men … Continue reading ‘It Was Like All of Us Had Been Raped’

Goesaert v Cleary and Gender Norms

What does Goesaert v Cleary tell us about gender norms of this time? As veterans returned from WWII, the inevitable fear of a lack of jobs for returning veterans forced law makers into passing legislation they felt would benefit our returning vets. These laws included the decision in Goesaert v Cleary, to prohibit woman from serving liquor as barmaids, unless they were the bar owners … Continue reading Goesaert v Cleary and Gender Norms

If You Want A Drink, Should It Matter Whose Mixing It?

Nowadays it is very common for you to be greeted by a female bartender. However, it was not always that way. Along with many others, Detroit Local 562 of the Bartenders’ Union members shared the same view on woman mixing up alcohol beverages. They believed women were not knowledgeable, outgoing, sociable or even physically capable of being a bartender. Although this belief was widely accepted … Continue reading If You Want A Drink, Should It Matter Whose Mixing It?

Goesaert v. Cleary

Goesaert v. Cleary was a case which was being fought because women were prohibited from being licensed as bartenders in cities having a population of over 50,000 people. They were only allowed to bartend if the bar was owned by the woman’s father or husband. According to the article “Mixing it up” women were viewed as not smart and not as conversational as men. Women … Continue reading Goesaert v. Cleary

Goesaert v. Cleary: Barmaids and the Fourteenth Amendment

As with many professions during the second World War, women took the place of men in bartending among many others. After men returned from the war, they demanded that women leave their positions and return to what they thought was the best position for a women in society: being a housewife. It is obvious with the gender norms of the time that women bartenders would … Continue reading Goesaert v. Cleary: Barmaids and the Fourteenth Amendment

Equality and Equity For All: Beyond The Gender Binary

In the early 1900s, the gender binary was still heavily enforced and, as such, people were forced into binary gender roles based on the sexes they were assigned at birth. At this point in time, people would often be thrown into the category of “male/man” or “female/woman”, completely disregarding the existences of people who fall outside of the binary, such as intersex people who were … Continue reading Equality and Equity For All: Beyond The Gender Binary

Women’s Labor Reforms

In the late 1800’s into the early 1900’s, a sharp increase in industrialization and a large wave of immigration reshuffled the working class and made social change a viable movement in urbanized cities. Though still unable to vote, many strong, determined women dared to challenge both government and social norms for the betterment of women’s wage work and labor laws. Florence Kelley, a college educated … Continue reading Women’s Labor Reforms

Women Paving the Way

The laws originally adopted by the American government before women pushed for the organization of the labor movement created harsh divides between the genders and what was expected of each. As men, you were to be involved in our democracy and decision making for the country and you were to be the breadwinner and/or sole provider for your family in whichever occupation you so chose. … Continue reading Women Paving the Way

Industrial and Social Revolutions

In light of America’s Industrial Revolution beginning in the 1800’s, the country was exhibiting features of social reform in schools, the workplace, and traditional society. The allowance of white, middle- class women to attend college along with the development of social science prompted a dynamic shift orchestrated by women who wanted revised laws in favor of fair treatment for women and children. And yet, despite … Continue reading Industrial and Social Revolutions

Blog Topic #4 for HIS 225

Thinking about the women you read about in this week’s articles and primary sources (350-376 and 377-382), as well as the labor movement and the Industrial Revolution, discuss wage work. Did our laws and social reform programs create gender constructs of men as wage earners? What gender constructs did we make at the turn of the century regarding women? Continue reading Blog Topic #4 for HIS 225

Seneca Falls

  Starting in the 1830’s individuals voices criticized the way American law and defined gender relations began to be heard. The 1848 Declaration of Sentiments combined these concerns into a manifest and offered change that would change the whole women’s rights movement. In the same year, the New York village of Seneca Falls hosted a gathering of around three hundred people. and debated the Declaration … Continue reading Seneca Falls

Declaration Of Sentiments

The Declaration of Sentiments was signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, at the first ever women’s rights convention which was organized by women.  This was a key convention in which many issues were addressed.  The convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York.  The author of the Declaration of Sentiments was Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who tried to write the declaration within the … Continue reading Declaration Of Sentiments

Declaration of Sentiments

The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men; 100 out of around 300 participants at the first women’s rights convention to be organized by women. The declaration is one of America’s most important documents advocating women’s rights. It was written mostly by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and was presented to the participants at America’s first women’s rights convention, … Continue reading Declaration of Sentiments